A Note on Citations
Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.
By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:
General CMOS Guidelines
Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines
Major Paper Sections
CMOS Title Page
In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:
In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
communication. And these enwrap each individual life
decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding
of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
These assemblages which entail the securitization of
identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
relays and relations. (246)
CMOS Bibliography Page
For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.
While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.
Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.
Turabian Subheading Plan
Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization
Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization
Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization
Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization
Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
TABLES AND FIGURES
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS
On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
1. “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
1. “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. http://Web address for OWL resource.
“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Author Date In-text Citation:
("Title" Year of publication).
("General Format" 2017).
Author Date References Page Citation:
Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. http://Web address for OWL resource.
2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.
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